Frozen embryo Transfer

Embryos can be frozen using a slow or fast method. A quick freezing method, i.e. vitrification, is increasingly being used, with which the frozen embryos survive the thawing for transfer with a probability of more than 90%. Frozen thawed embryos can be transferred when timed to your own ovulation if the menstrual cycle is regular. If the menstrual cycle is irregular, frozen embryo transfer (FET) is done with a hormone replacement or ovulation induction cycle. Over the past few years, IVF Treatment Pakistan has had a facility for in-vitro fertilization and micro-injection of sperm into the egg.

Hormone replacement cycle:

In the hormone replacement cycle, at the beginning of the cycle, estrogen treatment is started orally 4–6 mg per day or estrogen patch of 100–150  twice a week through the skin. With this medication, your own gonadotropin secretion is blocked and the ovaries remain dormant. The goal is for the endometrium to be at least 8 mm thick on the day of embryo transfer. In addition to estrogen, progesterone is necessary for the attachment of the embryo, and in hormone replacement therapy it is given at least until the 9th week of pregnancy.

Currently, in Lahore, about half of the children conceived through in vitro fertilization are born after frozen embryo transfer. The probability of pregnancy is very similar to that after fresh embryo transfer, and for this reason it is strongly recommended to abandon fresh embryo transfer and freeze all embryos to minimize the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

Treatment of severe semen changes:

The quality of semen is a significant factor when choosing an infertility treatment. Microinjection therapy (ICSI) is often needed, but finding out the underlying factors of difficult semen changes is particularly important, because in some situations simply treating the man by inducing spermatogenesis can enable spontaneous pregnancy.


The absence of sperm in the semen is divided into obstructive (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). In an obstructive situation, sperm production in the testis is normal, but the passage of sperm into the semen has been prevented, for example, due to an anatomical abnormality, a procedure, a blockage caused by inflammation or trauma. It is possible to retrieve sperm from the testicle with a needle sample or testicular microdissection surgery (MD-TESE). In a non-obstructive situation, sperm production is disturbed. The background may be pituitary insufficiency, a genetic factor medical treatment (cytoblockers, anabolic steroids) or testicular damage.

Embryo diagnostics in special situations

Cultivation of embryos to the blastocyst stage and improved freezing methods simultaneously with the development of DNA analysis methods have expanded the possibilities of using embryo diagnostics (preimplantation genetic testing, PGT). Embryo diagnostic treatments are divided into three groups: treatments performed due to a hereditary disease caused by a single gene error or due to a structural chromosomal abnormality, and treatments that screen the chromosome number of embryos (aneuploidy screening).

Aneuploidy Screening:

Embryo diagnostic treatment is an option for those couples who want to avoid the termination of pregnancy that may follow fetal diagnosis. So far, these treatments have been limited in public health care to only severe diseases that usually appear in childhood. Embryo diagnostics involves a wide range of ethical issues, and multiprofessional cooperation and adequate counseling of patients by experts in both genetics and fertility treatments are essential.

The health of children born from in vitro fertilization

The decrease in multiple pregnancies has reduced perinatal risks and led to better health of children born from in vitro fertilization. However, children born in singleton IVF pregnancies also have an increased risk of low birth weight and prematurity, as well as a slightly increased risk of malformation compared to children born spontaneously. On the other hand, a child born after frozen embryo transfer has an increased risk of being born large compared to those born after fresh embryo transfer.

Pre-eclampsia and Placental complications:

The reasons for the slightly different perinatal outcomes of children born from in vitro fertilization compared to those born spontaneously are not known with certainty. They are supposed to be primarily related to the health and infertility background of the parents. On the other hand, the clinical and laboratory technical events related to in vitro fertilization and microinjection treatment may also affect the early development of the embryo and reflect on the child’s short- and long-term health. Frozen embryo transfer supported by a hormone replacement cycle seems to increase the risk of pre-eclampsia and placental complications compared to embryo transfer performed in a natural cycle.

Effective treatment in Pakistan:

An IVF Cost in Pakistan is very cheap in Genova and IVF fertility Centers. as they have the latest IVF Technology and have a success rate is 95.8%. They are also very advanced in order to achieve Embryo diagnostics in special situations.  Aneuploidy Screening is also achieved in a very effective method.

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